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[原创翻译] 中国在核聚变发电道路上迈出大胆步伐

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本帖最后由 龙腾网翻译版务 于 2019-5-1 16:32 编辑 龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com
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In December 2018, China broke ground on a new facility for developing and testing components for its multi-decade science and technology program to develop fusion energy. The Comprehensive Research Facilities project is one of the interim steps toward demonstrating commercial fusion energy in an operating power plant by about 2050. This DEMO reactor will lay the basis for China’s industrial mass production of fusion power plants.

2018年12月,中国为开发核聚变能源的新设施破土动工,该设施为数十年的科学技术项目开发和测试部件, 2050年左右,核聚变发电厂将投入正式运营,综合研究设施项目是展示商用核聚变能的中间步骤之一。 该示范反应堆将为中国大规模工业化生产核聚变电站奠定基础。

Developing fusion energy is an urgent necessity. From a practical standpoint, to bring the world’s growing population up to a standard of living requires that energy use per capita be orders of magnitude higher than is available today to billions of people.

发展核聚变能源是当务之急。 从实际的角度来看,要使世界上不断增长的人口达到一个生活水平,人均能源使用量比今天数十亿人的能源使用量高出4个数量级。

That affirmation of the aims and needs of humanity cannot be provided by the low energy-flux dense “renewables” such as wind and solar, which were widely used centuries ago. They cannot support modern civilization. The so-called “Green New Deal,” by eliminating fossil fuels as the basic source of energy for the vast majority of the world’s population, would create a “carrying capacity” for the Earth of a population size comparable to the Middle Ages, before the use of fossil fuels, when windmills dotted the countryside. The Earth’s population did not reach one billion until approximately 1800. What will happen to the more than 6 billion “extra” people alive today, if we were to return to the technological level of the Middle Ages?

风能和太阳能等几个世纪前广泛使用的低能源密度"可再生能源"无法提供人类需求的能源。 他们不能支持现代文明。 所谓的"绿色新政" ,即取消化石燃料作为世界绝大多数人口基本能源来源的做法,将使地球的人口规模相当于中世纪,在使用化石燃料之前,当时农村到处都是风车。 地球人口直到大约1800年才达到10亿。 如果我们回到中世纪的技术水平,那么今天活着的60多亿"额外"人口将会发生什么?

Juxtaposed to the current propaganda barrage that resources are limited, and therefore “the world has too many people,” China’s accomplishment of uplifting hundreds of millions of its people out of abject poverty is stunning. To provide a fruitful future, China has chosen, in the short term, to accelerate its deployment of nuclear fission power plants, with an array of advanced fission technologies, such as high-temperature and fast reactors. For the longer term, the goal is the development of fusion energy.

再加上当前的宣传攻势,即资源有限,因此"世界人口太多"。中国使数亿人摆脱赤贫的成就令人惊叹。 为了提供一个富有成果的未来,中国已选择在短期内加快部署核裂变发电厂,使用一系列先进的裂变技术,如高温快速反应堆。 从长远来看,我们的目标是发展核聚变能源。



Fusion, the nuclear process of the Sun and all the stars, is the combining of light atomic nuclei. Most common in today’s fusion experiments is the fusing of deuterium and tritium, isotopes of hydrogen, which produces helium, a neutron, and an immense quantity of energy.

核聚变是太阳和所有恒星的核过程,是轻原子核的结合。在今天的聚变实验中最常见的是氢的同位素,氘和氚的核聚变,它产生氦,一个中子和巨大的能量。

Besides generating electricity, fusion and plasma technologies will revolutionize industry, chemistry, and materials processing with tools such as the “plasma torch.”

除了发电,聚变和等离子技术将使工业、化学和材料加工产生革命性的变化。

As humanity moves out from its ancestral home, fusion becomes a prerequisite for the industrial development of the Moon. In order to provide a livable environment on the airless, radiation-saturated Moon, we will have to create an Earth-like environment. Plasma-based and directed-energy mining, materials processing, and manufacturing will add to the power demand. Energy consumption per capita to live and work on the Moon will be orders of magnitude higher than that of today’s highest standard of living on the Earth.

当人类离开其祖先的家园,核聚变将成为月球工业发展的先决条件。 为了在没有空气、辐射饱和的月球上,提供一个适合居住的环境,我们必须创造一个类似地球的环境。 等离子体定向能源开采、材料加工和制造,将增加电力需求。 在月球上生活和工作的人均能源消耗量,将比目前地球上最高的生活水平高出4个数量级。

The move from the Moon to Mars cannot be done safely without fusion. Exposing our explorers to as much as six months of microgravity and high levels of radiation using slow chemical propulsion should not even be seriously considered. Nuclear fission propulsion can shorten the trip to a few weeks. But even that becomes unacceptable; fusion propulsion could get crews to Mars in a matter of days.

如果没有核聚变,从月球到火星的旅程就不能安全地进行。 使用缓慢的化学推进器,将使我们的探险者暴露在的微重力和高水平的辐射之下多达六个月,这甚至不应该被认真考虑。 核裂变推进可以把行程缩短到几个星期。 但即便如此,这也是不可接受的; 核聚变推进可以在几天内将宇航员送上火星。

China’s stated intention is to build a manned scientific base on the Moon. One of the purposes is to mine helium-3 as a fuel for fusion power on Earth and the Moon and for fusion propulsion that will take mankind everywhere in our Solar System.

中国表示打算在月球上建立一个载人科学基地。 其中一个目的是开采氦 -3作为地球和月球核聚变动力和聚变推进的燃料,这将把人类带到太阳系的任何地方。



The accusation that China is making economic progress only by stealing from the U.S., which has been used to justify banning the export of American advanced technology to China and banning cooperation in civilian space programs, is wearing thin. If China is poised to advance beyond the U.S. in fusion and lunar exploration, it is because China has advanced, while the United States has stood still.

指责中国只是通过窃取美国的技术来取得经济进步,已经被用来为禁止美国向中国出口先进技术和禁止民用太空项目的合作辩护,这种说法已经不再成立了。 如果说中国准备在核聚变和月球探测方面超越美国,那是因为中国已经取得了进步,而美国却停滞不前。

Four decades ago, following impressive progress in fusion experiments in the 1970s, the U.S. Congress passed, and President Jimmy Carter signed into law, the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980. The law called for an “Apollo-style” program to develop commercial fusion power, with the interim steps of an Engineering Test Reactor by 1990, and “the operation of a magnetic fusion demonstration plant at the turn of the twenty-first century. . . .” It noted that, “Acceleration of the current magnetic fusion program will require a doubling within seven years of the present funding level. . . .”

40年前,继20世纪70年代核聚变实验取得令人印象深刻的进展之后,美国国会通过了《1980年核聚变能源工程法案》 ,吉米 · 卡特总统签署成为法律。 该法案要求一个"阿波罗式"的计划来发展商业核聚变能源,在1990年之前建造一个工程试验反应堆的过渡步骤,以及"在21世纪之交运行一个核聚变示范工厂... ..."该法案指出,"加速目前的核聚变计划将需要在当前资金水平上,七年内翻一番。”

That funding never materialized, and today the U.S. magnetic fusion energy budget, in real dollars, is approximately one third of what is was when the Act was passed. Promising experiments have been shuttered and U.S. scientists told to go elsewhere, including to China, to continue their fusion research.

这笔资金从未兑现,今天美国的核聚变能源预算,以实际美元计算,大约是该法案通过时的三分之一。 有希望的实验已经关闭,美国科学家被告知去其他地方,包括中国,继续他们的核聚变研究。

China, on the other hand, understands that their fusion and lunar exploration programs are key science drivers for its economy and, being long-term projects, are at the frontier of science and therefore require consistent government support.

另一方面,中国明白,他们的核聚变和月球探测项目是其经济的关键科学驱动力,而且作为长期项目,处于科学前沿,因此需要持续的政府支持。

The Chinese fusion energy program got a later start than those in the Soviet Union and the U.S. In an interview with this author in December 2010,[fn_2] Dr. Wan, who has been a leader in fusion research for more than 35 years at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, related that In 1973, Dr. Wan moved to Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, where a new division of the Beijing Institute of Physics was being founded. He was part of a group to set up the new Institute for Plasma Physics.

中国的核聚变能源项目比苏联和美国开始得晚。 在2010年12月接受本文作者的采访中,在中国科学院等离子体物理研究所,从事核聚变研究超过35年的万博士提到,1973年,万博士搬到了安徽省省会合肥,北京物理研究所的一个新分所正在那里成立。 他是建立新的等离子体物理研究所小组的成员之一。

In discussing the opportunities for Chinese scientists to travel abroad and visit advanced fusion facilities in other countries, Dr. Wan said, “My personal opinion is that former Chairman Deng Xiaoping, the Chairman of our government, made the very important decision to open the door of China.”

在谈到中国科学家出国访问和参观其他国家先进核聚变设施的机会时,万说,"我个人认为,我们的前任主席邓小平做出了打开中国大门的非常重要的决定。"



The renamed HT-7 tokamak (“H” for Hefei) entered service the following year, making China the fourth country in the world after Russia, France, and Japan, with a tokamak incorporating superconducting magnets. HT-7 carried out nearly 20 rounds of experiments, until it was retired in 2013. The Institute of Plasma Physics explained at that time, that most importantly, the refurbished and upgraded Russian tokamak had “nourished three generations of Chinese fusion scientists.”

第二年,重新命名的 HT-7托卡马克投入使用,使中国成为继俄罗斯、法国和日本之后世界上第四个拥有装有超导磁体托卡马克的国家。 Ht-7进行了近20轮实验,直到2013年退役。 当时等离子体物理研究所解释说,最重要的是,翻新升级的俄罗斯托卡马克"培养了三代中国核聚变科学家"

While progress was being made on other machines, the Hefei scientists decided that they would make their contribution to the development of a steady-state operation of a tokamak, by designing a fully superconducting magnet tokamak. After being chosen above competing science and technology projects, EAST was approved by the central government in 1997 and received special budget support for construction. The first plasma discharge was in 2006.

在其他设备取得进展的同时,合肥的科学家们决定,他们将通过设计一个全超导磁铁的托卡马克装置,为托卡马克稳态操作的发展做出贡献。 中央政府于1997年批准了 EAST 项目,并对项目的建设给予了专项预算支持。 在2006年实现了第一次等离子体放电。

EAST has recently reached a new milestone. In November, the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that EAST had achieved an electron temperature of over 100 million degrees in its core plasma, or seven times greater than the interior of the Sun. To achieve that milestone, four months of experiments were carried out, and four kinds of heating power were used.

East 最近达到了一个新的里程碑。 去年11月,中国科学院报告说 EAST 的核心等离子体的电子温度超过了1亿度,是太阳内部温度的7倍。 为了达到这个里程碑,进行了四个月的实验,并使用了四种不同的加热能源。

Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 中国科学院等离子体物理研究所
In a public release issued November 13, 2018, the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that, “Since it began operating in 2006, EAST has become a fully open test facility where the world fusion community can conduct steady-state operations and ITER-related physics research.” Experiments continue on the EAST tokamak, focused on areas of research that will be applicable to ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, now under construction in France.

中国科学院在2018年11月13日发布的一份公开报告中指出,"自2006年开始运行以来,EAST 已经成为一个完全开放的测试设施,国际核聚变界可以在这里进行稳态操作和与ITER相关的物理研究。" 在EAST 托卡马克继续进行实验,重点是将适用于国际热核实验反应堆ITER的研究领域,这是目前正在法国建造的国际热核实验反应堆。

But there are numerous challenges to be overcome in applying knowledge gained with the EAST and ITER machines constructed for experimental research, to the development of commercial fusion power plants connected to the electric grid.

但是,要将 EAST 和 ITER 实验研究机器所获得的知识,应用到与电网相连的商用核聚变发电厂的开发中,还有许多挑战需要克服。

China is one of the partners in ITER, along with Russia, the U.S., Japan, Europe, South Korea, and India. ITER will be the largest tokamak in the world, with the goal of producing 500 megawatts of fusion power for 400 to 600 seconds. According to the current schedule, ITER will see its first plasma experiment in 2025.

中国是 ITER 的合作伙伴之一,还有俄罗斯、美国、日本、欧洲、韩国和印度。 ITER将成为世界上最大的托卡马克装置,目标是在400到600秒内产生500兆瓦的聚变能量。 根据目前的计划,ITER 将在2025年进行第一次等离子体实验。



Dr. Wan told this writer in 2014, “more than 200 scientists and engineers got together to summarize our progress [on] the engineering conceptual design for CFETR,” which has been going through continuing iterations. They planned to prepare a more detailed design to be presented to the government, and define additional key R&D requirements.

万博士在2014年告诉本文作者,"200多名科学家和工程师聚集在一起,总结了我们在 CFETR 工程概念设计方面的进展。"。 他们计划准备一个更详细的设计提交给政府,并确定额外的关键研发要求。

The goal of the Engineering Test Reactor is to “close the gap” between ITER and the DEMO commercial fusion power plant. This is a large step. Design work on the CFETR began in 2015, and in a presentation the following year, Dr. Wan reported that the design team hoped a construction “proposal could be uated and approved in about five years.” The plan has been to build the Engineering Test Reactor to operate in the late 2020s.

工程试验堆的目标是"缩小"ITER 和示范商业聚变电站之间的差距。 这是一大步。 CFETR 的设计工作始于2015年,在第二年的一次演讲中,万博士报告说,设计团队希望"建设方案能在大约五年内得到评估和批准" 计划是在21世纪20年代末建造工程试验反应堆。

But it became clear that there was also a gap between ITER/EAST and the Engineering Test Reactor. An R&D program to develop the technologies for the test reactor was needed.

但是很明显,ITER/EAST 和工程测试反应堆之间也存在差距。 需要一个研发项目来开发试验反应堆的技术。

The CFETR project was divided into two phases. In phase one, steady state operation will be a key issue, with a “modest” amount of fusion power produced, of up to 200 MW. In the second phase, the aim is for DEMO-scale power of over 1 gigawatt, with steady-state operation.

CFETR项目分为两个阶段。 在第一阶段,稳定状态的运行将是一个关键问题,即产生"适度的聚变功率,最高可达200兆瓦。 在第二阶段,目标是使示范核聚变堆-规模功率超过10亿瓦,并稳定运行。

And so ground was broken in December to build the Comprehensive Research Facilities in Support of the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), to help fill the technology gaps.

因此,去年12月中国破土动工,建造了支持中国聚变工程试验堆的综合研究设施,以帮助填补技术差距。

The Research Facilities involves ten Chinese fusion institutes and universities under the leadership of the Institute of Plasma Physics, which describes the Research Facilities, when completed, as “a comprehensive research platform” that will test reactor-scalable superconducting magnets, reactor heating systems, remote handling and diagnostic technology, and “provide strong support for cutting-edge cross-disciplinary fields, such as energy, information, health, and so on.” It is the first project in the future Hefei National Comprehensive Science Center, which will have other science and technology research facilities.

在中国等离子体物理研究所领导下,包括10所核聚变研究所和大学参与这些研究设施。等离子体物理研究所将这些研究设施描述为一个"综合研究平台",将测试反应堆的可扩展超导磁体、反应堆加热系统、远程处理和诊断技术,并"为能源、信息、健康等前沿跨学科领域提供有力支持。" 这是未来合肥国家综合科学研究中心的第一个项目,该中心将拥有其他科研设施。



If the tokamak is successful, you can use the fusion neutrons to irradiate uranium-238 into plutonium-239 for fission fuel. Also, you can use the neutron source to transmute the waste. To do this, you don’t need a pure fusion power reactor, which still has the materials problem. If you use the hybrid concept, you can use a little pure fusion in a cold plasma. . . . You can breed fission material, and treat the fission waste.[fn_3]

如果托卡马克装置成功了,你可以用聚变中子,把铀238放射到钚239中,作为裂变燃料。 此外,你可以使用中子源来转化废料。 要做到这一点,你不需要一个纯核聚变反应堆,核聚变仍然存在材料问题。 如果你使用混合概念,你可以在冷等离子体中使用一点纯核聚变。 你可以培育裂变材料,处理裂变废料。

This benefits both technologies, Dr. Wan said. “For fusion, you can promote the development of fusion technology, of materials development, so you can get an early application for fusion, while you take care of breeding the fuel and transmute the waste from fission.”

这对两种技术都有好处,万博士说。 "对于核聚变,你可以促进核聚变技术和材料开发的发展,这样你就可以早期应用核聚变技术,同时你还可以负责核燃料的培育和核裂变废料的转化。"

In 1953, Dr. Edward Teller and a team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California produced the first proposal in the United States for a hybrid reactor, using a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor’s neutrons to produce fissile plutonium from uranium-238.[fn_4] But at that early stage, the scientists were uncertain that creating controlled fusion was going to be successful.

1953年,爱德华·泰勒博士和加利福尼亚州劳伦斯利福摩尔国家实验室的一个团队在美国提出了第一个混合反应堆的建议,利用氘氚聚变反应堆的中子从铀 -238中生产可裂变的钚。 但在早期阶段,科学家们并不确定创造受控核聚变是否会成功。



China—which earlier this year became the first nation to land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon—plans to establish a lunar base for scientific exploration and to exploit the Moon’s resources. Through the use of lunar helium-3 for fusion fuel, the economy of the Earth will be integrated with its celestial neighbor. In the course of living on the Moon, mankind will develop fusion and new technologies to enable humans to further explore our Solar System and beyond.

今年早些时候,中国成为第一个在月球背面着陆探测器的国家。中国计划建立一个月球基地,用于科学探索和开发月球资源。 通过使用月球的氦 -3作为聚变燃料,地球的经济结构将与其天上的邻居融为一体。 在月球生活的过程中,人类将发展核聚变和新技术,使人类能够进一步探索我们的太阳系以及更远的地方。

The best way to achieve breakthroughs in each and all of the kinds of applications of technological progress over the coming fifty years or so, is to create a mission-oriented, crash-program task-force, assigned to developing all of the technologies required for beginning the permanent colonization of Mars by some preassigned target-date,

在未来50年左右的时间里,要在技术进步的各种应用中取得突破,最好的办法就是建立一个以任务为导向、速成计划的特别工作组,负责开发所有必要的技术,以便在某个预先指定的目标日期,开始建立永久性火星殖民。

The recent directive by President Donald Trump to NASA to return U.S. astronauts to the Moon by 2024, and to establish a permanent presence no more than five years after that, with the explicit, stated intention that this is a precursor of manned exploration and colonization of Mars, defines what could—and must—become a crash program approach toward manned space exploration. This, in turn, will redefine and refocus both the urgency and the role of fusion energy development for the human race as a whole. As defined by LaRouche, scientific progress is to be pursued not by a timetable dictated by budgetary constraints, nor as separate specialized arenas of individual programs—but rather by the driving necessity of a “grand-scale crash-program mission-assignment,” such as was carried out in the 1961-1969 John F. Kennedy Apollo Program.

最近,美国总统唐纳德 · 特朗普向美国宇航局发出指令,要求美国宇航员在2024年前重返月球,并在5年后建立永久存在,并明确表示这是载人探索和火星殖民探索的先驱,这一指令定义了什么可以---- 也必须---- 成为载人空间探索的紧急方案。 反过来,这将重新定义和重新聚焦,核聚变能源开发对整个人类的紧迫性和作用。

Such a mission-assignment requires, in turn, the cooperation and the pooled resources of China, the United States, Russia and all other willing partners to accomplish this goal. It will define other, successive urgent goals. It will also place the rapid development of fusion power—as an “Apollo-style” crash program—on the necessary international footing.

这样的任务分配反过来又需要中国、美国、俄罗斯和所有其他愿意合作的伙伴的合作和资源来实现这一目标。



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沙发
发表于 昨天 09:24 | 只看该作者
核能是危险的,太阳能才是清洁无限量的
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板凳
发表于 昨天 09:34 | 只看该作者
中科大被翻译成了合肥科大
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地板
发表于 昨天 14:35 | 只看该作者
大明谷王 发表于 2019-5-2 09:24龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com
核能是危险的,太阳能才是清洁无限量的

龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com再想想           
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5#
发表于 5 小时前 龙腾移动网页版 | 只看该作者
大明谷王 发表于 2019-5-2 09:24龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com
核能是危险的,太阳能才是清洁无限量的

龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com核聚变和太阳原理是一样的,清洁安全。倒是太阳能电池板生产有污染
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6#
发表于 2 小时前 | 只看该作者
本帖最后由 tansong1988 于 2019-5-3 21:51 编辑 龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com

龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com不好意思,回复错了
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7#
发表于 1 小时前 | 只看该作者
大明谷王 发表于 2019-5-2 09:24龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com
核能是危险的,太阳能才是清洁无限量的
龙腾网 http://www.flfloor.com
太阳能=核能。你应该学习下什么是核聚变和核裂变
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