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[原创-美国] 新型三合板组装建造的摩天大楼可能是城市的未来|经济学人

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本帖最后由 龙腾网翻译版务 于 2019-5-2 12:46 编辑

[video]player.bilibili.com/player.html?aid=50892148&cid=89111458&page=1[/video]








By 2050, the world's population is expected to soar to almost 10 billion people, and two-thirds of us will live in cities.Space will be at a premium.High-rise offers a solution, but concrete and steel, the materials we currently use to build high have a large carbon footprint.An answer might lie in a natural material we've used for millennia.Our view is that all buildings should be made of timber.We think that we should be looking at concrete and steel like we look at petrol and diesel.I think it's very realistic to think that someone will build a wooden skyscraper in the coming years, there's a lot of potential that's unrealized for using timber at a very large scale .Throughout history, buildings have been made of wood.But it has one major drawback: it acts as kindling.

到2050 年,全球人口预计将迅猛增长到将近100 亿人,而三分之二会居住在城市。居住空间将供不应求。高楼是解决方针,但我们目前用来建造高楼的钢筋水泥材料却有很大的碳足迹。这个问题的解决方案可能是一个人类使用了数千年的天然素材。我们的看法是所有的建筑都应以木材建造。我们认为我们看待钢筋水泥的态度应该跟看待汽油和柴油的态度那样相同。我认为,在不久的将来有人会用木制高楼大厦这样的想法并非不切实际,木材的大规模使用还有很多尚未发掘的潜力。综观历史,木材一直以来都是建材。但它有一个很大的缺点:它会着火。

Fire has destroyed large swathes of some of the world's great cities.But by the early twentieth century, the era of modern steelmaking had arrived.Steel was strong, could be moulded into any shape and used to reinforce concrete.It allowed architects to build higher than ever before.So why, after more than a century of concrete and steel, are some architects proposing a return to wood?If concrete were to arrive as a new material on Dragon's Den, if you were to pitch it and say, "I've got this brand-new material. It's liquid, and you can pour it into any shape and it'll solidify."That sounds great.But when you say, "We need a whole new fleet of trucks to move it around, and actually, when it solidifies, it's not strong enough. We have to stick this other stuff in it called steel."

火灾在过去烧毁了许多大城市。然而,到了二十世纪初,现代钢铁制造技术出现了。钢铁坚韧,可以被塑造成任何形状、加固水泥。钢铁让建筑师可以不断突破建筑的高度。那么如此,为什么在使用了钢筋水泥超过了一世纪,有些建筑师却主张回归木材的怀抱呢?如果水泥是新研发的材料,就像在《龙穴》这个电视节目上出现的,然后你想要集资。说:我手上有这个全新的材料,它是液态的,可以倒进任何形状的模板中凝固。这听起来很棒。可是如果你接着说:可是我们需要一个新型的卡车车队作为运输工具,实际上,它凝固之后其实没那么坚固,我们还需要插入这个叫做钢铁的东西。



I don't think it would be a compelling case.Concrete and steel are costly to produce and heavy to transport.Wood, however, can be grown sustainably and it's lighter than concrete.And crucially , as trees grow, they absorb carbon dioxide from the air, locking it into the timber.One study showed that using wood to construct a 125-metre skyscraper could reduce the building's carbon footprint by up to 75%.Regular timber isn't malleable like steel or concrete, and isn't strong enough to build high.But engineers have come up with a solution: It's called cross-laminated timber, or CLT for short.It's basically a new material, even though the underlying material is something we've used for millennia.

我不认为这样的一个方案令大众信服。水泥和钢铁的生产成本很高,而且很重,不容易运输。
但是木材却可以持续地生长,而且比水泥轻。关键的是,树木在生长时从空气中吸收二氧化碳,并锁定于枝干中。一项研究表明,使用木材建造一栋125 公尺的高楼能减少该建筑高达75% 的碳足迹。一般木材不如钢筋水泥般能任意形塑,也不如钢筋水泥强度高,无法盖很高。但是工程师找到了解决方案:这叫做交错层压木材,简称CLT。这基本上是一种新材料,即使其组成素材已经被人类使用了数千年。



It's cross-laminated so the layers of wood are glued at 90 degrees to each other.That makes for a very, very stable material.CLT is light and it's comparable in strength to concrete and steel, but how does it cope when burnt with a high heat source?Charred wood is extremely insulating: that's the tree's natural protection against a forest fire.It chars, it loses some of its structural mass, but when you remove the source of flame, it extinguishes itself.When steel gets hot, it gets a bit softer.We've actually seen some steel roofs collapse in fires where wooden roofs have not.London architects Waugh Thistleton are already designing buildings with this new kind of timber.

它是多层木材以90度角交叉堆叠、黏合形成的。这是一种非常稳定的材料。CLT 很轻,而且坚韧度和钢筋水泥相当,但是遇到高温怎么办呢?烧焦的木材其实十分绝缘:那是树木遇到森林大火时的自然保护机制。木材炭化时会损失一些质量,可是拿掉了火源后,它会自动熄火。钢铁遇热时会变软。其实我们曾经看过火灾后,钢质屋顶坍塌,可是木制屋顶却没有。位于伦敦的建筑事务所Waugh Thistleton 已经开始用这个新木材设计建筑了。

There's a CLT building behind, where the timber building sits behind timber clad, and then there's a really simple galvanized steel walkway.Cross laminated timber is a material we work with a lot.Once these panels arrive on site, we're building a floor a week, at least.So this is incredibly fast, maybe twice as fast as concrete.Because when you build a concrete building--what we call concrete buildings--are actually floor slabs and columns.When we build a cross laminated timber building, it's building floor slabs, all the external walls, all the internal walls, the lift cores, the stairs, the stair cores, everything is made of timber, so these are like honeycomb structures.

在这里的后面有个CLT 建筑大楼,全由木材建造,然后这边是一个很简当的,经过镀锌防锈钢处理的人行道。我们常使用CLT 这个材料。当这些木板运送到工地现场后,每个星期至少可以盖好一层楼。这速度十分迅速,可能比用水泥快上两倍。因为一栋水泥大楼也就是我们说的水泥构造其实是由楼板和梁柱组成体。可是,当我们建造一个CLT 构造时,所有的元素,包含地板、所有的内外墙所以整个建筑像是个蜂巢式的结构。

Andrew and his colleagues designed Britain's first high-rise wooden apartment block, and have recently completed the world's largest timber-based building.Behind these bricks is a timber core made from more than 2000 trees, sourced from sustainable forests.And this London practice is not alone in advocating the use of CLT.Ambitious wooden high-rise buildings are also being constructed in Scandinavia, central Europe and North America.As yet, nobody has used CLT to build beyond 55 metres.But Michael Ramage's research centre in Cambridge working with another London practice has proposed a concept design of a 300-metre tower, to be built on top of one of London's most iconic concrete structures-- the Barbican.

Andrew 和他的同事们设计了英国第一批木制公寓楼,最近也完成了全世界最高的木制大楼。这些砖头后面是木材基底,从超过2000 棵可持续森林的树木而来。这家位于伦敦的建筑事务所不是唯一提倡使用CLT 的公司。许多雄心勃勃的木制高楼也在北欧、中欧、和北美出现。目前为止,还没有超过55 层楼的CLT 大楼建筑。
可是Michael Ramage 位于剑桥的研究机构和另一家伦敦的事务所,一起设计了一座300 米高的塔,预计将加建在伦敦其中一座最具代表性的水泥建筑——巴比肯艺术中心之上。

The way we've engineered the Oakwood Tower is to look at the global structure: Is it stable, and would it stand up?We believe the answer is yes.The columns at the base of the Oakwood Tower would be about 2.5 meters square, so that's solid timber, made of small elements glued together.I think we'll probably see incremental increases from the current height of about 50 meters, and at some point, someone will make a step change, probably to about 100 meters.Making that jump in height will be a difficult sell.The cost of building wooden skyscrapers is largely unknown, but those costs could be reduced by prefabricating large sections of buildings in factories.And city-dwellers will need to be persuaded that CLT does not burn like ordinary wood.As an attractive, natural material, wood is already popular for use in low buildings.If planners approve, it could rise to new heights.

我们在设计橡木塔的时候着重于整体结构:这样稳定吗?长期不倒?我们相信答案是肯定的。橡木塔最底部的柱子大约长宽2.5 公尺,全部以实木胶和制成。我认为未来木制建筑在高度上会有不断的突破,可能可以再高50 公尺,甚至在将来某个时刻有人会有办法直接再突破50 公尺,比现在多100 公尺高。只是要筹钱还是有困难的,因为建造木质高楼大厦的成本基本上还是个未知数,不过有个节省成本的方法:在施工前先在工厂制造建筑大部分的组装零件。另外,还必须说服城市居民CLT 不会像一般木材那样着火。作为一个天然且极具吸引力的材料,木材已经大量使用于建造低矮的建筑。

如果能得到领导的认可,木制建筑将得以拔高到新的高度——突破天际。



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沙发
 楼主| 发表于 4 天前 | 只看该作者
本帖最后由 hzc54188@qq.com 于 2019-4-30 08:43 编辑

视频地址:player.bilibili.com/player.html?aid=50892148
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板凳
发表于 前天 14:42 龙腾移动网页版 | 只看该作者
白蚁呢?能扛得住吗
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地板
发表于 前天 15:09 | 只看该作者
看看美国那些一阵风吹过就遍地狼藉的三合板独栋大宅...我还是老老实实住在钢筋混凝土板楼里安心点..
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5#
发表于 前天 17:06 龙腾移动网页版 | 只看该作者
木质或者说任何拼接结构建筑物都需要解决一个问题——连接位置的应力集中问题。两块木板不管是钉子连接还是榫卯结构亦或是胶粘,起固定作用的都是连接点附近的一点点结构,而钢筋混凝土凝固以后从力学角度就是一个整体,应力在承重结构中的传递是可以没有集中点的(看设计水平)。所以从这个角度来说,钢筋混凝土建筑物天然更结实。
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6#
发表于 前天 20:21 龙腾移动网页版 | 只看该作者
住木屋的最大感受是:隔音太差。
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7#
发表于 前天 23:16 | 只看该作者
感觉是建筑木材商的广告软文
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