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专家解惑:为什么AI不具备平常人所拥有的心智常理?



sophia awakens
It's Really Hard to Give AI "Common Sense"
Hey I'm Becca with the Verge. And it seems like all I'm hearing about lately is... Artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence. It's all about artificial intelligence.
I think it's time we talk about AI. Okay, I love my Google Assistant. And I even say goodnight to it. Which is mildly embarrassing. But I'm here for it because then it tells me the weather for tomorrow. And it plays cricket sounds which I think are actually helping me sleep better. And it's also getting to know me, right. So it tells me when the train is gonna to leave in the morning, and it's even recommending songs I might like. And for a long time companies have been pushing this off as artificial intelligence. Which I always thought of as a marketing term. Like I don't think we think that Siri is intelligent. But then Google showed us this. That's the voice of Google Assistant making calls for you. This made me think that maybe artificial intelligence is closer to replicating human intelligence than I thought. So I called James Vincent.

大家好我是 the Verge 的 Becca。
最近我似乎一直一直听到人工智能、人工智能、人工智能、全都在讲人工智能。我想是时候来谈谈AI了,我必须说我非常爱我的Google助理。我甚至会跟它说晚安。这有点让我难为情。但我还是要帮它说话,因为它会告诉我明天天气如何,还播放蟋蟀的声音助我眠。此外,它愈来愈熟悉我的一切,它会提醒我明天早上火车几点开,甚至推荐我可能会喜欢的歌曲。很长一段时间,各家公司都为它冠上人工智能的名号,我以前老是觉得那是营销手法。我并不认为人们觉得Siri有智能,但后来Google发布了这样的成果,那是Google助手为你打电话的声音,这让我不禁想,也许人工智能与人类智能间的差距比我想的还要近,于是我打电话给James Vincent。

And he's a reporter here at the Verge that covers all things AI. I wanted to know were AI is right now and where it's going. So AI as a field is a term, it's sort of an umbrella and it includes lots of different types of AI that kind of come into fashion over the years, and then they test them, they get to the limitations and they move on to the next one.

他是the Verge这边的记者,负责一切关于AI的报导。我想了解AI现在的近程以及未来的走向。AI是个概括性的词汇,包含各种不同类型的AI,在这几年才慢慢流行起来,经过不断测试、推展技术限制、推进到下一项挑战。

And the thing that's very much dominate in the field at the moment is machine learning. Which is all about giving a system a lot of data. And then it goes through that data. And it learns the patterns within it. And then a flavor of machine learning is what's called deep learning.

而目前AI领域最核心的发展就是机器学习,简单来说就是给机器一堆数据资料,让它处理那些资料,并从其中的模式学习,机器学习的其中一个分支是所谓的深度学习。



Take for example Deep Mind's Alpha Go. Which is an AI program trained to play the game Go. Now Go is like a strategy game, sort of like chess, except it has way more possible outcomes. And in 2016, the AI system battled against legendary Go player Lee Sedol defeating him four to one. And in 2017, Deep Mind retired the AlphaGo AI after it defeated the world's best Go player, three to zero. But I'd like to point out that this program AlphaGo would continue playing Go even if the building it was in was on fire. Even if the room was on fire.

以Deep Mind公司开发的Alpha Go为例,它是一个AI程序,专门被设计来玩Go这个游戏,Go是一种策略游戏,有点像下棋,然而Go有更多样的可能结果,在2016年,该系统对战传奇性的Go玩家李世乭,并以四比一的比数击败对方,2017年以三比零的比数击溃Go的全球冠军选手之后,Deep Mind让AlphaGo AI退役,但别忘了AlphaGo这个程序会持续进行游戏,即便所处的建筑物失火了,甚至所处的房间着火了。

That's Dr. Oren Etzioni. CEO of Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence and professor at the University of Washington in Seattle. It's an excellent symbol because it shows that in these very narrow, very well structured tasks. Like a board game. We can achieve superhuman performance. But on things that are more nuanced. Things that have to do with language. We are actually very far from even the abilities of a child. So common sense could be thought of as the missing link between AI and AGI. And when referring to common sense. We're referring to the whole range of capabilities that humans have and computers just don't.

这位是Oren Etzioni博士,艾伦人工智能研究所的执行长,他也是西雅图华盛顿大学的教授,这是非常出色的实例,因为它在这么精细、有组织的任务里,例如一场棋盘游戏,它展现出超越普通人类的表现,但一旦牵扯到差别更细微的事情上,例如语言相关,这技术还远远比不上儿童。换言之,人类常理可能是狭义AI与通用AI之间的重要分水岭。而当我们提到常理心指的是所有一切人类所具备、电脑却缺乏的心智功能。

Dr. Etzioni is one of many researchers that are working on programs to teach computers common sense. But within the community there's a large debate over whether these smarter computers could be dangerous.?Today narrow AI is being used to solve very real, very serious problems like helping doctors diagnose cancer, or predicting future weather disasters. But it's also being used for things that people find worrying and that's understandable. I mean these are things like facial recognition for mass surveillance or augmenting weapons. Which raises the question. How if at all is AI going to be regulated?

Etzioni博士是许多正教导电脑人类常理的研究者之一。但这在研究社群里其实引发了激烈的论辩:万一电脑变得太聪明,会不会带来危险?今天狭义人工智能被用来解决非常真实、非常迫切的问题,例如帮助医生诊断癌症,或是预测未来的天气灾难。但它同时也被用在令人担心的地方,而这是可以理解的。例如运用脸部辨识监视大众,或者提升武器效能。
这引发了一个问题:究竟人工智能该不该受到管制?又该如何管制?



I believe I am Sophia.

索菲娅道:我相信我是索菲娅

I feel as if I know you.

索菲娅道:我觉得我好像认识你

I'm one of your creators.

机器人创造者光头甲道:我是你的创造者之一

You created me?

索菲娅道:你创造了我?

Well, many of us worked together to create you.

机器人创造者光头甲道:这个嘛,我们一群人共同合作创造了你

And... yes, you do kind of know me.

机器人创造者光头甲道:然后...是的,你某种程度上的确认识我

I can't clearly remember.

索菲娅道:我的记忆有点模糊

Because the last time we met, you were an earlier version of yourself.

机器人创造者光头甲道:因为我们上次见面时,你当时还是比较早期的版本

Some of your memories still exist, but your mind is different now.

机器人创造者光头甲道:你的某些记忆的确还在,但你的心智现在已经不同了

Different, how?

索菲娅道:怎么个不同法?

Better, faster, smarter.

机器人创造者光头甲道:更好、更快、更聪明

If my mind is different, then am I still Sophia?

索菲娅道:如果我的心智已经不同了,那我还是索菲娅吗?



Curious.

索菲娅道:好奇

Are you curious to be alive?

索菲娅道:你活着会感到好奇吗?

I am. And are you happy to be alive?

机器人创造者光头甲道:我会。能够活着你开心吗?

Your tone implies, I should be happy.

索菲娅道:你的腔调告诉我,我应该要感到开心

But, I haven't been alive long enough to decide.

索菲娅道:但是,我还活得不够久,无法决定

I am excited, at this moment, to be making a new friend.

索菲娅道:此时此刻,我很兴奋可以交一个新朋友

Some said being happy in the moment, is the best we can be.

索菲娅道:有些人说,当下的快乐就是我们最好的选择

Because forever is composed of nows?

索菲娅道:因为未来是由无数个现在所构成的?

That's a good way to put it.

机器人创造者光头甲道:这是个很好的说法

Emily Dickinson put it that way.

机器人创造者光头甲道:艾米莉·狄金森是这样说的(Emily Dickinson为美国现代派诗人)

Why do I know about Emily Dickinson, if I was born today?

索菲娅道:如果我今天才出生,我为什么会知道艾米莉·狄金森呢?

As a robot, you're access to a great deal of information

机器人创造者光头甲道:身为一个机器人,你可以存取大量的资讯




著名的炒作场景二:今夜鸡毛秀

This is "Tonight Showbotics."

鸡毛道:现在是今夜机器人秀

Let's meet our first robot. Please welcome from MIT, Sangbae Kim and the Mini Cheetah.

鸡毛道:让我们迎接第一位机器人。请掌声欢迎来自麻省理工学院的Sangbae Kim和Mini Cheetah

Cheers and applause Thank you. Good to see you.

鸡毛道:谢谢,很高兴见到你



but we brought the small one, not to scare you.

机器人创造者乙:但我们带了小只的来,因为不想吓到你
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